英语课之2020年11月新闻热词汇总

11月,第七次全国人口普查展开;第三届进博会在上海举行;三峡工程建设任务全面完成;国务院联防联控机制发布《进口冷链食品预防性全面消毒工作方案》;深海载人潜水器“奋斗者”号创下新纪录;教育部印发《研究生导师指导行为准则》;《区域全面经济伙伴关系协定》正式签署;华为出售荣耀全部资产;嫦娥五号探测器成功发射;我国贫困县全部脱贫;国办发文解决老年人面临的“数字鸿沟”问题;直播打赏出新规,要求用户实名制。

全国人口普查 national census

China on Sunday started its seventh national census, with about 7 million census takers going door to door to document demographic changes. The census collects data including the name, ID number, gender, marital status, education, and profession of Chinese citizens.
11月1日,第七次全国人口普查正式开始登记,700多万普查人员走入千家万户,登记普查信息。这次普查登记包括姓名、身份证号、性别、婚姻状态、受教育程度以及职业等信息。

【知识点】

全国人口普查(national census)是指在国家统一规定的时间内(within a defined period),按照统一的方法、统一的项目、统一的调查表和统一的标准时点(using the same method, categories and survey forms at a set time),对全国人口普遍地、逐户逐人地进行的一次性调查登记。

普查对象是普查标准时点在中华人民共和国境内的自然人(the natural persons living within the territory of the People’s Republic of China on the standard time point of census)以及在中华人民共和国境外但未定居的中国公民(the Chinese citizens who are outside the territory of the People’s Republic of China but have not become permanent residents of the other country),不包括在中华人民共和国境内短期停留的境外人员(foreigners who are making a short-term stay within the territory of the People’s Republic of China shall be excluded)。

首次采取自主填报

When census takers knock on your door, you can answer the questions by registering the information directly on the smart devices. Or,the census taker will offer you an account number and a QR code so that you can register your information within a certain time.
普查员上门时,住户可以直接在普查智能设备上填报信息,也可以请普查员提供自主填报的二维码及自主填报码与密码,在规定时间内完成自主填报。

采用多项技术保护公民隐私

此次普查采用互联网云技术、云服务和云应用部署,按照国家网络安全等级保护三级标准要求进行安全管理。

All information collected is filled in through the internet and is directly uploaded to the national database in real-time, eliminating possible human interference.
采集的所有信息通过互联网填报,数据会被实时上传至处理中心,消除了人为干预的可能性。

Both the mobile end and the server end have adopted highly strict data encryption and desensitization technology so that personal information cannot be hacked or disclosed during the process of data transmission.
信息采集的移动端和服务器端采取了严密的数据加密和脱敏技术,个人信息不会在数据传输过程中泄露。

杂交水稻 hybrid rice

11月2日,湖南省衡阳市衡南县清竹村,由“杂交水稻之父”袁隆平团队研发的杂交水稻双季亩产突破1500公斤大关,其中晚稻品种为第三代杂交水稻。

Despite unfavorable weather conditions this year, the two harvests combined-consisting of early-season and late-season crops-surpassed 22.5 tons per hectare, realizing the goal set earlier this year by renowned agricultural expert Yuan Longping, who has spearheaded research into hybrid rice strains.
虽然今年天气条件不利,但是早晚稻双季亩产仍然超过1500公斤(相当于每公顷22.5吨),达到了著名农业专家袁隆平今年早些时候定下的目标。袁隆平一直致力于杂交水稻品种的研究。

【单词讲解】

这里的harvest用作名词表示“(农作物的)收成”,与yield可以互换使用。Yield这个词可以用作名词和动词,表示“产量、收益”或者“屈服、投降、退让”等意思,比如:yield to someone/something(屈服于某人或某事),yield to impulse(一时冲动),yield to pressure(屈服于压力);yield a profit(获得收益),lucrative yield(丰厚的收益),average annual yield(平均年产量)等。

“杂交水稻”hybrid rice中的hybrid是一个用法很多的名词,除了表示“(动植物的)杂交品种”以外,还可以表示“(使用多种动力来源的)混合动力车”,比如:Most car manufacturers now offer hybrids.(大多数汽车厂商现在都提供混合动力车型)。

对于这个产量,90岁的袁隆平院士在与测产现场5G视频连线时表示:

The fresh record means a 1-hectare hybrid rice field can feed as many as 75 people.
新纪录意味着一亩地可以养活5个人(相当于一公顷地养活75个人)。

I am more than excited and extremely satisfied with the results.
这个结果我非常满意,很激动。

The next goal is to promote the experiences of Hengnan county and plant the advanced rice variety in other rice-producing regions in China, contributing to safeguarding the country’s food security.
我们下面进一步把品种、经验在全国其他稻米产区推广开来,为国家的粮食安全作出新的贡献。

据了解,第三代杂交水稻技术被袁隆平看作是突破亩产“天花板”的关键。专家认为,第三代杂交水稻的“基因强大”,具有高产(high-yielding)、抗病(disease-resistant)、抗寒(cold resistant)、抗倒(lodging resistant)等特点。

杂交水稻技术的进步,为解决我国粮食问题做出了重要贡献。

China now feeds around 20 percent of the world’s population with less than 9 percent of the world’s arable land.
中国现在用全球不到9%的耕地养活全世界约20%的人口。

Yuan, who developed the world’s first hybrid rice in the 1970s, has set multiple world records in hybrid rice yields in previous years, making great contributions to the food security of China and the world.
袁隆平在上世纪70年代研发出全世界第一个杂交水稻品种,过去几年间,他研发的杂交水稻产量多次创造世界纪录,为中国和全世界的粮食安全作出了巨大贡献。

第三届中国国际进口博览会 the third China International Import Expo

11月4日,第三届中国国际进口博览会(the third China International Import Expo)暨虹桥国际经济论坛(the Hongqiao International Economic Forum)开幕式将在上海举行。

看点一:“进博朋友圈”扩大,参展企业质量更高

Though affected by COVID-19, this year’s CIIE is attracting global exhibitors in droves. Nearly 50 Fortune 500 and industry-leading companies are participating for the first time, as well as international debuts of hundreds of new products, technologies and services.
尽管受到全球新冠肺炎疫情影响,但各国企业参展积极踊跃。近50家世界500强和行业龙头企业首次参展,还有数百个新产品、新技术和新服务全球首发。

【知识点】

中国国际进口博览会(China International Import Expo,CIIE),是迄今为止世界上第一个以进口为主题的国家级展会(the world’s first import expo held at the national level),是国际贸易发展史上一大创举。举办中国国际进口博览会,是中国着眼于推动新一轮高水平对外开放作出的重大决策(an important decision made by China to pursue a new round of high-level opening-up),是中国主动向世界开放市场的重大举措。这体现了中国支持多边贸易体制、推动发展自由贸易的一贯立场(China’s consistent position of supporting the multilateral trading system and promoting free trade),是中国推动建设开放型世界经济、支持经济全球化的实际行动(a concrete action by China to advance an open world economy and support economic globalization)。

看点二:六大展区“硬核”展品吸睛

The expo’s total exhibition area has been expanded by 30,000 square meters, covering six exhibitions-food and agricultural products, automobiles, equipment, consumer goods, healthcare and services.
本届进博会总展览面积比上届扩大近3万平方米,设立六大展区:食品及农产品展区、汽车展区、技术装备展区、消费品展区、医疗器械及医药保健展区、服务贸易展区。

看点三:四大专区紧扣市场热点

Four new special sections will debut including public health and epidemic prevention, energy saving and environmental protection, smart transportation and sporting/gaming.
第三届进博会新设公共卫生防疫、节能环保、智慧出行和体育用品及赛事等4个专区。

看点四:采购商达40万人,结构进一步优化

Altogether, 112,000 domestic companies from across the country have formed 39 trade missions, and total registered professional buyers reached 400,000.
今年专业采购商达到40万人,共组建39个交易团,注册单位11.2万家。

Two-thirds of them come from the country’s three major economic engines-the Yangtze River Delta, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, and nearly 1,400 of the companies import more than $100 million in goods annually.
报名注册的采购商中,有三分之二来自于长三角、粤港澳大湾区以及京津冀地区,年进口额1亿美元以上的有近1400家。

看点五:线上与线下结合,商业与文化交融

Themed on dealing with common challenges through collaboration, the Hongqiao International Economic Forum will be held during the expo, with some high-level politicians, business executives and experts attending the forum online.
进博会期间,将围绕合作应对挑战主题举办虹桥国际经济论坛,一些政府高官、企业高管以及专家等将通过线上方式出席论坛。

An Italy business delegation will attend the third CIIE with 55 world intangible cultural heritages and more than 80 exhibitors.
意大利商务代表团将带着该国55个由联合国教科文组织认定的世界文化遗产和88个参展商参加本届进博会。

看点六:强化疫情防控,严格管理食品冷链

All expo participants will need to take COVID-19 testing, temperature checks and submit health declarations. Visitors from overseas will undergo a 14-day quarantine.
所有参展参会人员进行全员核酸检测,体温检查并提交健康申明。入境人员需进行14天隔离。

In the expo venue, five medical stations and 26 temporary observation zones will be stationed by 400 medics. Across the city, 33 hospitals were designated to handle any emergency cases from the expo.
在场馆内设置5个医疗站,此外还增设了26个临时观察点,共有400名医护人员值守。上海还指定了33家医疗机构作为定点医院应对突发情况。

和往届进博会不同,今年进博会展区内将不零售冷冻生鲜食品(fresh & frozen food),禁止试吃未经“全熟加工”的冷冻生鲜食品。

三峡工程 the Three Gorges project

China’s Ministry of Water Resources and the National Development and Reform Commission announced the official full completion of the project’s construction, saying the Three Gorges project has met all design requirements, has a good overall performance, and fulfills the key roles of flood control, electricity generation, shipping and water-resource utilization.
水利部、国家发展改革委公布,三峡工程建设任务全面完成,工程质量满足规程规范和设计要求,运行持续保持良好状态,防洪、发电、航运、水资源利用等综合效益全面发挥。

【知识点】

三峡工程(the Three Gorges project)全称为长江三峡水利枢纽工程。整个工程包括一座混凝重力式大坝(concrete gravity structure),泄水闸(sluice gate),一座堤后式水电站(hydropower station at dam toe),一座永久性通航船闸(navigation lock)和一架升船机(lifter)。三峡工程建筑由大坝、水电站厂房和通航建筑物三大部分组成。大坝坝顶总长3035米,坝高185米。三峡工程是迄今为止世界上规模最大的水利枢纽工程(the world’s biggest water conservancy project)和综合效益最广泛的水电工程(a hydropower project with widespread benefits)。

监测表明,拦河大坝及泄洪消能(flood drainage)、引水发电(water diversion and power generation)、通航(navigation)及茅坪溪防护工程等主要建筑物工作性态正常,机电系统及设备、金属结构设备运行安全稳定。

防洪

By the end of August, the dam had held back 180 billion cubic meters of water during flood seasons. It saw inflows of over 70,000 cubic meters per second in 2010,2012 and this year and reduced flood peaks by about 40 percent, the review said, greatly easing flood-control pressure in downstream rice-growing areas.
至2020年8月底,三峡水库累计拦洪总量超过1800亿立方米。2010年、2012年、2020年入库最大洪峰均超过70000立方米每秒,经过水库拦蓄,削减洪峰约40%,极大减轻了长江中下游稻米产区防洪压力。

发电

The world’s largest hydropower station, the dam had generated over 1.35 trillion kilowatt-hours of electricity by August, contributing to electricity supply in Central and East China and in Guangdong province.
三峡电站是世界上总装机容量最大的水电站。截至2020年8月底,三峡电站累计发电量超过13500亿千瓦时,有力支持了华东、华中、广东等地区电力供应。

水资源利用

During dry seasons, discharges have been raised to more than 5,500 cubic meters per second, providing more than 20 billion cubic meters of water a year for the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.
三峡水库每年枯水季节下泄流量提高到5500立方米每秒以上,为长江中下游补水200多亿立方米。

By the end of August, the reservoir had provided replenishment for 2,267 days, with a total water supply of 289.4 billion cubic meters, optimizing production, living conditions and the ecology of the river’s middle and lower reaches, the review said.
截至2020年8月底累计补水2267天,补水总量2894亿立方米,改善了中下游地区生产、生活和生态用水条件。

【单词讲解】

这里的replenishment表示“the act of filling something up again by replacing what has been used”,也就是“补给;重新补足”等意思,比如: product replenishment(补货),Bone marrow plays an important role in the constant replenishment of red blood cells.(骨髓在持续补充红细胞方面发挥重要作用)。

生态与环境保护

Electricity produced by the power station was equivalent to that from burning 430 million metric tons of standard coal, leading to a significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions.
至2020年8月底,三峡电站发出的优质清洁电力能源相当于节约标准煤4.30亿吨,节能减排效益显著。

航运

The project has also significantly improved navigation conditions and bolstered shipping capacity and freight volume in the Yangtze, the review said. By August, some 1.48 billion tons of cargo had passed through the Three Gorges Dam, boosting development in the Yangtze’s economic belt.
三峡工程显著改善了川江航道通航条件,过闸货运量快速增长,截至2020年8月底,累计过闸货运量14.8亿吨,有力推动了长江经济带发展。

搬迁安置

The production and living environments of the 1.31 million people who were relocated to make way for the Three Gorges project have been greatly improved, and infrastructure and public service facilities in the reservoir area have developed rapidly, it said.
131万搬迁安置移民生产生活状况显著改善,库区基础设施、公共服务设施实现跨越式发展。

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